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Inkomoko y’Inyambo z’ i Rwanda.

Amateka y’u Rwanda, agaragaza ko ubukungu bw’igihugu bwari bushingiye ku buhigi, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi by’umwihariko ubworozi bw’inka. Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa cyami inka by’umwihariko inyambo zari zifite icyo zivuze mu muco gakondo k’abanyarwanda. Kugirango tumenye byinshi ku nyambo reka dusubire inyuma mu mateka turebe inkomoko y’inka n’agaciro kazo mu rwanda rugari rwa gasabo.

Inyambo
Inka z’Inyambo

Bakundukize Norbert , umushumba mu karare ka Nyanza yadutangarije ko inkaya yageze mu rwanda ubwo umwami yarambagiraga hamwe n’abari bamugaragiye bakabona inyamanswa ifite ubwoya iri kumwe n’akana kayo maze umwami ategeka ko bayijyana mu rugo bakayorora nuko nuko kuva ubwo ihabwa izina ry’ inka.

Ibi kandi byenda guhura neza n’ibyo dusanga ku mpapuro za mbere z’igitabo cy’umwanditsi n’umuhanga w’umunyarwanda Alexis Kagame yise Inganji Karinga. andi makuru kandi avuga ko inka zaba zarageze mu Rwanda ziturutse mu duce tw’indorwa, umutara ndetse na karagwe.

kera mu Rwanda hari amoko abiri y’inka: ubwoko bwa mbere bwari ubw’inka zari zubashywe ku rwego rwo hejuru zitwaga Inyambo, n’izindi zisanzwe umwami yeguriraga ingabo zikitwa inkuku.

Inkuku zarangwaga n’umubyimba muto ndetse n’amahembe magufi bitandukanye n’inyambo zirangwa n’amahembe maremare, umubyimba mugari ndetse zikaba ndende. Uko zari ziteye na magingo aya biziharira ubwiza no kugaragara neza kuzibonye wese.

Kuva zikivuka , inyambo zatangiraga gutozwa kwitonda no gutambuka neza. Izi nka ariko si umwimerere w’u Rwanda kuko zizwiho kuba zaragaragaye mu Rwanda ku ngoma ya Kirima Rugwe.

Mu nyandiko ye yasohotse mu 1939, umwanditsi Sandarat avuga ko Inyambo zaba zikomoka mu Bunyoro , ni agace k’uburengerazuba ka Uganda aho zari zorowe n’Abakama bayoboraga ubwami bwa bunyoro.

Muri iyi nyandiko Sandarat akomeza avuga ko banyoye amata yazo bagapfa maze abanyoro bagahita bohereza inyambo mu gace ka ankore, abagabe bari abami ba Ankore nabo banyoye amata y’inyambo nabo baza gupfa hanyuma niko kuzohereza i karagwe, igice cy’amajyaruguru y’uburengerazuba bwa Tanzaniya cyari gituwe n’abanyambo.

Umwami wa karagwe amaze kumenya amakuru yazo yanze ko ziguma mu gihugu cye maze abanyambo bazirongora bazerekeza ku nkiko z’u Rwanda. Umwami w’ u Rwanda yakiriye inyambo ariko arahira kutazanywa amata yazo. Uko niko inyambo zageze mu Rwanda.

Amashyo y’inyambo amaze kugwira mu Rwanda , umwami Yuhi Mazimpaka yaciye iteka ry’uko nta muturage uzongera korora inyambo, maze kuva ubwo inyambo zihinduka inka z’ibwami.

Mu gitabo cye   kindi yise Amazina y’ inka, umwanditsi Alexis kagame agaragaza ibice bine by’ibangurira kugirango hazavuke inyambo yuzuye.

Zimwe mu mbyino nyarwanda z'umuco zifite aho zihuriye no gutega amahembe kw'inyambo
Zimwe mu mbyino nyarwanda z’umuco zifite aho zihuriye no gutega amahembe kw’inyambo

Igice cya mbere bafataga inka z’inkuku zikabangurirwa ku mfizi y’inyambo , izivutse zikitwa ibigarama , ubwa kabiri bagafata ibigarama bakabanguriza ku mfizi y’inyambo izivutse zikitwa imirizo, imirizo yabangurirwa ku mfizi y’inyambo ikabyara inkerakibumbira, inkerakibumbira yabangurizwa ku mfizi y’inyambo ikabyara inyambo y’ingegene ariyo yabaga inyambo yuzuye.

Iyo uvuze ibihogo n’amagaju ku nka abenshi muri iki gihe bumva amabara yazo, nyamara mu Rwanda rwa kera aya mabara yasobanuraga inkomoko y’izo nka. Amagaju yitirirwaga inka zose zaturukaga hanze y’u Rwanda, naho ibihogo zikaba inyambo zorerewe mu Rwanda .

Mbere y’umwaka wa 1750, nibwo hadutse umuhango wo kurwanisha ibihogo n’amagaju binyuze mu mazina yazo aho hatoranywaga inka imwe mu bihogo n’indi mu magaju maze abisi bazo bazisingizaga, bakazirata irushije indi ubwiza ikaba iratsinze.

Mu Rwanda kandi, inka zabaga zigabanije mu matsinda azwi nk’imitwe y’inka , buri mutwe w’inka wabaga ufite umutwe w’ingabo bibangikanye.

Bitandukanye n’izindi nka , inyambo zororwaga kandi zigacungwa ku buryo bwihariye. Nkuko tubisanga mu gitabo cy’umwanditsi Jean Nepomscene Nkurikiyimfura, urwego rwa mbere ku ruhererekane rw’inzego zacungaga inyambo rwari rukuriwe n’umwami hamwe n’umutware w’ingabo wari ukuriye ya mitwe y’inka twavuze hejuru.

Urwego rwa kabiri rwari rukuriwe n’umutware w’inka, umutware w’inyambo hamwe n’umutahira. Urwego rwa nyuma rugacungwa n’umubwiriza wari ushinzwe gutangaza ibikenerwa mu kwita ku nka, abafatankoni bari bashinzwe kugeza inka mu rwuri, kuzicunga no kuzicyura ndetse n’abarenzamase barazikukiraga, bakazisasira ndetse bakita no kuzazo.

Igihe umwami yabaga arambagiye ku musozi runaka yagombaga kumurikirwa inyambo. Mu kuzimurika habanzaga amashashi, agakurikirwa n’amariza hagaheruka amajigija atatse amasaro zose zigatambuka uko zabaga zaratojwe kuva zikiri inyana.

Izi nyambo uko zamurikirwaga umwami, iyahigaga izindi mu bwiza no gutambuka yahitaga ihabwa izina ry’inyamibwa.

Dusubiye inyuma mu mateka y’inka mu Rwanda, habagaho umuhango ukomeye wo kwita inyambo amazina wakorwaga n’abahanga b’icyo gihe bitwaga abisi. Ibi birori byabaga bigenewe inyambo gusa kuko inkuku zari zigenewe indirimbo zisanzwe zizwi nk’amahamba.

Ubwiza bw’izi nyambo, ubwitonzi, gutambuka neza, n’amahembe yazo ateze neza byaje kwinjira mu mbyino gakondo z’abanyarwanda aho usanga gutega maboko kw’ababyinnyi byaba bihuye neza no kwigana amahembe y’inyambo ndetse no gutambuka kwazo bigaragarira mu mbyino z’abakokbwa zizwi nk’imishayayo n’ikinyemera.

Si ibyo gusa kandi nkuko twabivuze tucyanzika iki cyegeranyo, uyu munsi usanga hari abantu bitiriwe inyambo nkuko bitirirwaga inka muri rusange aho amazina nka Munyambo, kanyamibwa, Nyiranyamibwa n’ayandi ahabwa abana kubera ubwiza n’ubwitonzi bw’inyambo.

Mu kwanzura twababwira ko inyambo zitakiri izo kumurikwa gusa ngo bigaciraho kuko magingo aya ziri mu bintu bigira uruhare mu kuzamura ubukungu b’igihugu biciye mu gukurura ba mukerarugendo. Uretse n’ibyo kandi amateka y’izi nyambo ni kimwe mu bimenyetso bikomeye kandi bifatika by’umurage gakondo w’abanyarwanda byibutsa vuba amateka n’imigenzo yo mu Rwanda rwa kera nkuko abagera mu rukari babyibonera.

 

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Kwizera Fulgence
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  • Inyambo ni nziza ikibazo nuko zirimo gusimbuzwa biriya bigurube ngo no nzungu 

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